Nutrients and ingredients

Amino acids are the basic modules of proteins, but they also play a central role in numerous functions in the human body in their usual form. There are 20 different protein building amino acids, some of which the body can produce itself (non-essential amino acids), while others must be obtained from food (essential amino acids). Proteins are crucial for cell structure, muscle function, the immune system, the transportation of nutrients and many other biological processes. The correct balance and intake of amino acids through a balanced diet helps to ensure the health and functionality of the body.

Fibres are indigestible components of food that are associated with positive effects on your health. They are found in plant-based foods such as whole grains, legumes, vegetables and fruit. These sources of fibre play a crucial role in a high-fibre diet.

The benefits fibre are diverse. Fibre contributes to a healthy digestion by supporting bowel movements and preventing constipation. It can help to stabilize blood sugar levels and has a positive impact on the cholesterol profile, which in turn can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Fibre also contributes to satiety by delaying gastric emptying, which can support weight management. It also serves as "nutrition" for large intestine bacteria and is therefore associated with a balanced intestinal flora. A high-fibre diet has also been shown to strengthen the immune system and to reduce the risk of certain chronic diseases.

BCAAs (Branched-Chain Amino Acids) are essential amino acids that are of fundamental importance to the human body and cannot be produced by the body itself. BCAAs include leucine, isoleucine and valine. These amino acids play a crucial role in nutrition and athletic performance. The intake of BCAAs contributes to protein synthesis, which in turn supports muscle building. In addition, BCAAs can help to counteract muscle reduction during intensive workout sessions. These amino acids are also associated with improved endurance and faster recovery after working out.

Biotin, also known as vitamin B7 or vitamin H, is a water-soluble B vitamin that plays an important role in metabolism. Biotin is involved in energy metabolism (i.e. carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism) and plays an important role in gene regulation. Thus, Biotin contributes to the maintenance of healthy skin, hair and nails, among other things. Biotin is partly produced by the bacteria in our intestinal flora, but is also found naturally in numerous foods: for example eggs, mushrooms, nuts, grain, liver, fish and certain vegetables are rich in biotin.

In terms of quantity calcium is the most important mineral in the human body. The mineral is essential for the formation of bones and teeth and plays a role in blood clotting, muscle contraction and nerve conduction. Calcium is found in a variety of foods. Good sources of calcium are mineral water and dairy products such as milk, yoghurt and cheese. In addition, green leafy vegetables (e.g. broccoli, kale), nuts, seeds, fish (especially sardines and salmon) and fortified foods also provide valuable amounts of calcium. A calcium deficiency can lead to muscle cramps as well as various health problems, including osteoporosis or an increased risk of bone fractures. It is not only an insufficient intake of calcium that can lead to corresponding deficiency symptoms - an inadequate supply of vitamin D, which plays a key role in the absorption of calcium, can also cause a deficiency.

Carnipure is a high-quality form of L-carnitine, an amino acid compound. L-carnitine plays a key role in the body's energy metabolism. It supports the energy production in the cells. Carnipure represents a patented form of L-carnitine that is known for its purity and quality. As a brand, Carnipure stands for high-quality L-carnitine, which is used in various dietary supplements and products to support fitness and wellness. The benefits of Carnipure include the support of the fat metabolism, the increase of the energy production, and the improvement of endurance and performance.

Dextrose, which plays an important role in the human energy metabolism, is also known as glucose. It is used in the food industry, particularly as a sweetener in products such as candies, desserts and beverages. Dextrose is also often used in medical contexts, for example for intravenous nutrition. Dextrose is an energy source that is quickly absorbed in the digestive tract and can be converted into energy fast, making it particularly relevant for athletes during workouts or to promote recovery. Dextrose is also important for your cognitive performance (thought processes).

Essential amino acids (EAAs) are essential modules of proteins that the human body cannot produce on its own. Therefore, they need to be taken in through your nutrition. EAAs are a group of nine amino acids. These include histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. The benefits of  EAAs reach beyond pure protein building . They are very important for the repair and maintenance of tissues, the support of a good immune system, the production of enzymes and hormones as well as the support of healthy skin. Food supplements are one way of covering the need for essential amino acids. Athletes, people with special dietary requirements or those who have difficulty absorbing sufficient EAAs through food can particularly benefit from such supplements.

Iron is an essential trace element that plays a central role in the human body. The need of iron varies according to your age, gender and life circumstances. Pregnant women and people with certain health conditions may have an increased need of iron. In order to cover this need, it is important to include iron-rich food to your diet. These are red meat, poultry, fish, legumes, nuts, wholegrain products and green leafy vegetables such as spinach.

Iron deficiency occurs when the intake of iron is not sufficient to cover the body's needs. This can lead to reduced production of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that is essential for transporting oxygen through the body. Symptoms of iron deficiency can include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, brittle nails, hair loss and concentration problems.

Proteins are an essential nutrients made out of amino acids and play a key role in the human body. Proteins are the modules of cells, tissues and organs and are responsible for numerous functions in the body. A protein-rich diet supports muscle building and maintenance, promotes satiety and can therefore make weight management easier. In addition, proteins play an important role in the regeneration of tissues, strengthen the immune system and contribute to the maintenance of healthy skin, hair and nails. Our Layenberger products contain protein from sources including milk, whey, casein, soybeans, peas and bovine collagen hydrolyzate.

Milk is an excellent source of protein, containing both whey and casein. Whey protein is absorbed quickly and is great in supporting muscle building, while casein is digested more slowly and provides protein over a longer period of time.

Soybeans are a plant-based source of protein and are a good alternative to animal products. Soy products such as tofu and soy milk contain all the essential amino acids and are particularly suitable for a vegetarian and vegan diet.

Bovine collagen hydrolysate is a form of protein extracted from collagen. It is often associated with the support of skin, hair, nails and joints, as collagen is an important component of these tissues.

An extract is a substance separated or extracted from a mixture, which is obtained by the separation process of extraction. Due to their high concentration, extracts are often used in the areas of nutritional supplements and cosmetics. Among others, our Layenberger products contain extracts from rose root, black pepper, green tea and Tagetes Erecta:

Rose root extract is extracted from the roots of the Rhodiola rosea plant. The rosavins it contains are said to improve the ability to concentrate by increasing the release of neurotransmitters such as serontonin and dopamine and at the same time to reduce the production of stress hormones.

Black pepper extract is extracted from the fruits of the pepper plant. It contains piperine, which can improve the bioavailability of certain nutrients. Black pepper extract is often used in food supplements to promote the absorption of other substances.

Green tea extract is extracted from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. It contains antioxidants, particularly catechins, which are associated with various health benefits, including the support of the metabolism, the protection from cell damage and the promotion of heart health. Another ingredient is caffeine, which is released delayed in the body due to binding to so-called tannins.

Tagetes Erecta extract is extracted from the marigold flower and is valued for its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics due to the carotenoids it contains. This extract can be used in skin care and as a dietary supplement in connection with eye health.

Colourants are substances that give food their colour. They are obtained from various sources, can be of natural or synthetic origin and are used to improve the visual appeal of food. The high Layenberger quality standard requires that colourants are declared accordingly and legally the term "colourant" is defined as an additive. Additives must be permitted in the corresponding food and are therefore re-evaluated at regular intervals and adjusted if necessary. Under certain circumstances, specific limit values must be adhered to.

Fats are essential nutrients that play an important role in our diet. A distinction is made between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The right balance between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and the consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are crucial for a balanced, healthy diet.

All possible bonds between the carbon atoms within saturated fatty acids are single one's. They are mainly found in animal products such as meat, butter and dairy products.

Unsaturated fats, which include omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, contain double bonds between carbon atoms and are found in vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and fish oil. These fats are considered healthier and can help reduce the risk of heart disease when consumed instead of saturated fats.

Folic acid, more rarely referred to as vitamin B9 , fulfills numerous important functions in the human body. Vitamin B9 is a water-soluble vitamin that is crucial for cell division, blood formation and the formation of DNA and RNA. Folic acid also supports heart health by lowering homocysteine levels and may even help prevent certain types of cancer. Good sources of folic acid are vegetables (such as brussels sprouts and broccoli), legumes, nuts, seeds, as well as fortified salt and yeast. A balanced diet is important for getting enough folic acid.

Gluten is a group of proteins found in grains such as wheat, rye and barley. As the consumption of gluten causes intolerances for some people, many Layenberger products do not contain gluten.

Guarana is a plant whose seeds are prized for their natural caffeine content, particularly in Brazil. However, the caffeine it contains is bound differently in comparison to the caffeine contained in coffee, resulting in a slower release. As a result, the stimulating effect of guarana can last longer and has a much milder effect compared to conventional sources of caffeine.

Inulin is a soluble fibre found in many plants, including chicory, artichokes, onions and asparagus. Inulin contributes to the health of the digestive system by acting as a prebiotic. Prebiotics can be metabolized by bifidobacteria in the human intestine as a source of energy and thus contribute to their enrichment. These bacteria and their metabolites are in turn associated with improved intestine health and barrier function. Inulin is also associated with potential benefits for blood sugar levels and the immune system.

Potassium is a mineral that plays a crucial role in the human body. Potassium is responsible for various vital functions in the body. It plays a key role in the regulation of water and electrolyte balance, muscle contraction, the transmission of nerve impulses and the maintenance of stable blood pressure. An adequate intake of potassium through a balanced diet is crucial to counteract potassium deficiency. Foods rich in potassium include bananas, oranges, spinach, potatoes, tomatoes, avocados and yoghurt.

Caffeine is a psychotropic substance that occurs naturally in coffee, tea, mate, guarana, cola (cola nut) and chocolate, but is also used in synthetic form, primarily in dietary supplements or energy drinks. Caffeine is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system. It temporarily blocks the effect of adenosine, a neurotransmitter that causes tiredness and sleepiness. Due to this blockade, caffeine leads to increased alertness, concentration and improved mood. The effect of caffeine usually sets in within 15 to 45 minutes after ingestion and reaches its peak after about an hour - this is also highly dependent on the form in which caffeine is used or whether it is bound or free as a pure substance in the food. The half-life of caffeine varies between individuals, but it remains active in the body for several hours.

Carbohydrates are an important group of nutrients that provide the body with energy and are for example found in cereal products, fruit, vegetables and legumes.

Plain sugar, also known as monosaccharides, are the basic modules of oligo- and polysaccharides, which are higher, complex carbohydrates. Examples are glucose, fructose and galactose. They are rapidly absorbed by the body and therefore provide energy quickly. Complex carbohydrates , on the other hand, consist of longer or branched chains of plain sugar. These include polysaccharides such as starch or glycogen, which are found in food such as cereals, potatoes and muscle meat. Complex carbohydrates are digested more slowly and provide a long lasting energy supply.

Der glykämische Index (GI) ist ein Maß, das angibt, wie stark kohlenhydrathaltige Lebensmittel den Blutzuckerspiegel erhöhen. Lebensmittel mit niedrigem GI (<50) werden langsamer verdaut und haben daher einen geringeren Einfluss auf den Blutzuckerspiegel im Vergleich zu Lebensmitteln mit hohem GI (>70). Als Referenzwert dient Traubenzucker (100). Bei einem weiteren Maß, der sog. glykämischen Last (GL), wird außerdem noch die Kohlenhydratdichte des jeweiligen Lebensmittels berücksichtigt.

Collagen is a structural protein that is found throughout the human body and plays a crucial role in maintaining the strength and elasticity of tissues. This protein is an essential component of skin, hair, nails, bones, cartilage and tendons. Through its structural properties, collagen supports skin firmness and elasticity, promotes hair growth, strengthens nails and contributes to joint and bone health.

Collagen hydrolysate refers to a hydrolyzed form of collagen in which the collagen is broken down into smaller, easily absorbable pieces called collagen peptides. This form is often found in dietary supplements.

Collagen peptides are smaller amino acid sections of collagen. By breaking down the protein into peptides, the absorption in the body is improved. Collagen peptides are often valued for their potential benefits for skin, hair, nails and joints.

Linoleic acid is an essential omega-6 fatty acid that is of fundamental importance to the human body. Linoleic acid is crucial for the formation of cell membranes and plays a role in the regulation of inflammatory processes in the body. It is a polyunsaturated fatty acid that cannot be produced by the body itself and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Linoleic acid is mainly found in vegetable oils such as sunflower oil, safflower oil, maize oil and soybean oil. Seeds, nuts and some grain products are also rich sources of linoleic acid.

Magnesium ist ein essentielles Mineral, das im Körper eine entscheidende Rolle spielt und an einer Vielzahl von physiologischen Prozessen beteiligt ist. Es unterstützt die Funktion von über 300 Enzymen, spielt eine Rolle bei der Energieproduktion, der Muskelkontraktion und -entspannung, der Regulation des Blutzuckerspiegels und trägt zur Erhaltung von gesunden Knochen und Zähnen bei. Es ist daher wichtig, genügend Magnesium durch eine ausgewogene Ernährung aufzunehmen, da ein Magnesiummangel zu verschiedenen gesundheitlichen Problemen wie beispielsweise Muskelkrämpfen, Müdigkeit, Herzrhythmusstörungen, Schlafstörungen und allgemeiner Schwäche führen kann. Magnesium ist nur in wenigen Lebensmitteln in hohen Mengen enthalten. Gute Quellen stellen Mineralwasser, Vollkorn, Weizenkleie, Sonnenblumenkerne oder Kakao dar; andere Grundnahrungsmittel und verarbeitete Lebensmittel sind eher magnesiumarm. 

Maltodextrin is a tasteless carbohydrate obtained from starch. Due to its rheological and energetic properties, maltodextrin is used to enrich food with carbohydrates and improve their consistency.

In addition, maltodextrin is a source of readily available carbohydrates and provides energy quickly. It is therefore often used by athletes as an energy source before, during or after intensive workout sessions. It can help to quickly replenish glycogen stores in the muscles, which is important for recovery after physical exertion.

Manganese is an essential trace element that is involved in various biochemical processes in the body. It plays a key role in energy metabolism, is part of enzymes that support antioxidant processes and contributes to the formation and maintenance of connective tissue, cartilage and bones. Manganese is found particularly in green vegetables, oatmeal and tea, but is ubiquitous in food.

Natrium ist ein lebenswichtiges Mineral, welches eine entscheidende Rolle bei der Regulation unseres Wasserhaushaltes, der Nervenfunktion und der Muskelkontraktion spielt. Es ist das Hauptkation der Extrazellulärflüssigkeit und sorgt damit für die Aufrechterhaltung des osmotischen Drucks als auch des Säure-Basen-Gleichgewichts. Weiterhin ist Natrium an zahlreichen Transportsystemen, z. B. für die Aufnahme von Zucker und Aminosäuren, beteiligt. Die Hauptquelle für Natrium in der Ernährung ist Kochsalz (Natriumchlorid).  Natrium kommt jedoch ubiquitär v. a. in hochverarbeiteten Lebensmitteln vor, weshalb in der Bevölkerung eher eine Überversorgung vorliegt. Eine zu hohe Natrium-Zufuhr kann zu Gesundheitsproblemen wie Bluthochdruck oder auch Nierensteinen führen. Eine ausgewogene Ernährung, die frische Lebensmittel bevorzugt und den Konsum von stark verarbeiteten Lebensmitteln einschränkt, trägt dazu bei, die Natriumzufuhr zu regulieren.

Niacin is also known as vitamin B3 and is represented by the compounds nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. It is a water-soluble vitamin that is crucial for various metabolic processes in the body, including energy production through the respiratory chain. It also plays a role in DNA repair and the regulation of cholesterol levels. Natural sources of niacin are diverse and include meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, eggs, nuts, seeds and whole grains. A lack of niacin can lead to a condition called pellagra, which is characterized by symptoms such as dermatitis, diarrhea, and nervous system disorders such as numbness or behavioral changes. It is important to consume sufficient amounts of niacin through the diet to avoid deficiency symptoms.

PalatinoseTM is a trade name for isomaltulose, a natural type of sugar obtained from sucrose (table sugar).  Isomaltulose consists of the same sugar modules as sucrose, but they are linked together differently, resulting in some specific properties. As it is digested more slowly than sucrose, it leads to a slower rise in blood sugar levels and helps to keep it more stable. It also provides long lasting energy, which is of particular interest to endurance athletes. It is therefore often used in sports drinks, energy bars and other products for a sustainable energy supply.

Pantothenic acid - also known as vitamin B5 - is also a water-soluble vitamin and plays a central role in energy metabolism. The main function of pantothenic acid is to support the formation of coenzyme A, which is primarily necessary for the formation and breakdown of nutrients such as carbohydrates and fats. Pantothenic acid also plays a role in the synthesis of some neurotransmitters and cholesterol, which is required for the formation of steroid hormones.

Pantothenic acid is found in a variety of food, especially animal products such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs and dairy products.  Plant sources are also available, including whole grains, legumes, nuts and vegetables. Adequate intake of pantothenic acid helps to maintain a healthy energy metabolism. In the form of dexpanthenol, pantothenic acid improves the elasticity, moisture retention capacity and wound healing of the skin.

Piperine is a natural substance that is mainly found in black pepper and is the carrier of the spicy pepper flavour. However, piperine is also said to act as a bioenhancer , i.e. the ability to increase the bioavailability of various nutrients. By inhibiting enzymes in the digestive tract, particularly cytochrome P450, piperine supports the improved absorption of some nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and other substances.

In addition to increasing the nutrient absorption, piperine also has antioxidant properties that may help protect cells from harmful free radicals. In addition, some studies have linked piperine to potential anti-inflammatory effects, which could have positive effects on your overall health.

Piperine is often used as an additive in some dietary supplements or marketed as a pure substance. These supplements are often valued for their role in improving nutrient absorption and promoting a healthy inflammatory status.

Salt, scientifically known as sodium chloride, is an essential substance consisting of the elements sodium and chloride. Salt is not only a seasoning, but also a vital element in our diet. It is often used to preserve food and significantly contributes to its taste and texture. Not only can the right amount of salt improve the enjoyment of meals, but salt is also important for regulating the body's water balance. It helps to maintain blood pressure and ensures that cells are properly hydrated. Chloride is also used to produce stomach acid, which is involved in the digestion and breakdown of ingested food.

Taurine is a non-essential aminosulfonic acid that plays an important role in numerous biological processes. It acts as a modulator for the function of neurotransmitters in the brain, which can have a positive effect on cognitive function and mood. Furthermore, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of electrolytes, especially calcium, which is crucial for the muscle function. In addition, taurine has antioxidant properties that can help protect cells from oxidative stress.

Taurine is often associated with positive effects on the cardiovascular system, as it can stabilize the heartbeat and muscle contraction. Taurine can also have a calming effect on the nervous system, which can contribute to improved sleep and stress reduction. The formation of bile acid conjugates, which are formed as part of excretion and detoxification processes, is also one of taurine's functions.

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved as a coenzyme in two crucial enzyme reactions in the human body. This means that vitamin B12 is jointly responsible for the formation of red blood cells, which are essential for the transportation of oxygen in the body. It also plays a key role in maintaining a healthy nervous system and the formation of DNA, the body's genetic construction plan. Amino and fatty acid metabolism is also only fully possible with cobalamin .

Natural sources of vitamin B12 are mainly animal products such as meat, fish, dairy products and eggs. Food supplements can therefore be important alternatives for vegetarians and vegans, as a vitamin B12 deficiency can cause various symptoms, including tiredness, weakness, anemia and neurological problems such as numbness or memory problems.

Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is one of the water-soluble B vitamins and is essential for energy metabolism, as it plays a key role in converting food into energy. It is particularly important for the conversion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins into energy that the body can use. In addition to its involvement in energy metabolism, vitamin B2 supports the formation of red blood cells and promotes the maintenance of healthy skin. It also plays a role as an antioxidant by protecting cells from harmful free radicals. Vitamin B2 is also essential for the conversion of vitamin B6 and folic acid into their active forms, which is of great importance for general health. Riboflavin is also used as a colourant in the food industry due to its intense yellow to orange colour.

The main sources of vitamin B2 are found in a balanced diet. Riboflavin-rich food include dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, green leafy vegetables, nuts and whole grains.

Vitamin B6, also known as pyridoxine, is a water-soluble B vitamin. It supports the metabolism by helping with the conversion of amino acids and thus contributes to protein synthesis. In addition, vitamin B6 plays a key role in the formation of red blood cells and the regulation of the immune system. It is also crucial for the production of hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. In addition, vitamin B6 has a positive influence on the nervous system by promoting the formation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and GABA, which has an impact on your mood and sleep.

The main sources of vitamin B6 are found in a balanced diet. Pyridoxine-rich food include fish, poultry, meat, bananas, potatoes, whole grains, legumes and nuts. By eating a variety of these food groups or taking supplements, it is possible to consume sufficient amounts of vitamin B6 and thus support optimal health. It should be noted that vitamin B6 is relatively heat labile - i.e. the more carful the food is prepared, the higher the pyridoxine content.

Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is an antioxidant and plays a key role in various physiological processes. As an antioxidant, it protects cells from harmful, free radicals caused by environmental factors and metabolic processes.  Vitamin C supports the absorption of iron from plant sources and contributes to the formation of collagen , which is crucial for the health of skin, bones, blood vessels and teeth. In addition, the duration of colds can be shortened by Vitamin C supplementation. Adequate consumption of Vitamin C is therefore important for maintaining a normal immune system and general health.

The main sources of vitamin C are fresh fruit and vegetables. Citrus fruits such as oranges, lemons and grapefruits are particularly rich in ascorbic acid , as are peppers, broccoli, strawberries and kiwis.

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is not only important for maintaining healthy bones and teeth, but also supports a variety of other vital functions. It promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in the intestine, which in turn is crucial for the mineralization of bones. In addition, it plays a role in the regulation of the immune system, supports muscle health and is associated with positive effects on the cardiovascular system and the regulation of inflammatory processes. A unique property of vitamin D is its ability to be synthesized in the skin through exposure to sunlight. UV-B rays from the sun initiate a process in which vitamin D3 is formed in the skin. This is why sunlight is often referred to as a natural source of vitamin D. However, production can be influenced by factors such as geographical location, time of year, skin colour and use of sunscreen.

Zinc is an essential trace element that is vital for the proper functioning of the immune system and influences the production, storage and release of various hormones. It also contributes to wound healing, plays a role in DNA synthesis and is involved in numerous biochemical metabolic processes as a component of over 300 enzymes. A zinc deficiency can have negative effects on health and manifest itself in various symptoms, including growth retardation, a weakened immune system and skin problems.

Zinc sources are varied and include food such as meat, seafood, nuts, seeds and whole grains. Optimal intake of zinc from food is crucial as the body cannot produce zinc itself.

General terminology

The biological value of a protein is a measure of how efficiently dietary proteins can be converted into the body's own proteins.

sind, desto geringer ist der Aufwand des Körpers für die Umsetzung. Besondere Bedeutung kommt hierbei den essentiellen Aminosäuren (EAAs) zu, da der menschliche Organismus nicht in der Lage ist diese Aminosäuren selbst zu produzieren und sie ausschließlich über die Nahrung aufnehmen kann.  

Die biologische Wertigkeit ist ein relatives Maß, wobei als Bezugsgröße die Aminosäurezusammensetzung eines von der WHO erstellten Referenzproteins genutzt wird und entsprechend auf 1 (= 100%) festgelegt ist. Demnach wird die biologische Wertigkeit auf einer Skala von 0 bis 1 (bzw. 100%) ausgedrückt, wobei 1 (bzw. 100%) die höchste Wertigkeit ist. Durch die geschickte Kombination verschiedener Proteinquellen kann das Aminosäureprofil einer Mahlzeit – insbesondere der Gehalt an EAAs – so optimiert werden, dass auch Werte >100 erreicht werden. Häufig wird die biologische Wertigkeit auch unter dem Begriff Chemical Score aufgeführt. Für die Berechnung wird ausschließlich der Gehalt an EAAs in Relation zum Referenzprotein betrachtet. Der finale Wert wird durch die limitierende essentielle Aminosäure dargestellt, welche im Vergleich zum Referenzprotein mit dem geringsten Gehalt im Testprotein vorliegt.

High-quality protein sources, such as those found in meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes and certain grains, make a significant contribution to increasing biological value. As a rule, animal sources often contain a nutritionally higher quality amino acid profile than plant sources. A balanced selection of protein-containing foods can provide the body with an optimal quantity and composition of amino acids.

The meaning of bioavailability refers to the amount of a nutrient that is actually available and can be used by the body after ingestion. It plays a decisive role in assessing the effectiveness of food intake and nutritional supplements.

Factors influencing bioavailability include the type of food consumed, individual physiological differences, the way food is prepared or the simultaneous intake of certain substances that can impair or promote absorption. The bioavailability of nutrients varies depending on the food and type of nutrient. Some nutrients are easily absorbed, while others require certain conditions to be optimally absorbed. Understanding these differences is crucial to ensure a balanced diet. Optimizing bioavailability is a goal to ensure that the body can absorb the maximum amount of nutrients possible. This can be achieved through appropriate food combinations, the correct preparation of food or the use of food supplements.

The Chemical Score is used to measure the protein quality of food. It refers to the ability of a food to provide sufficient amounts of all essential amino acids that the body cannot synthesize itself and must therefore ingest through food. The amino acid profile of a food, in particular the concentration of essential amino acids, is used to calculate the Chemical Score. Foods with a chemical score of 100 have an ideal amino acid profile that completely covers the needs of the human body. Food with a Chemical Score below 100 may be deficient in certain essential amino acids.

Electrolytes are charged particles that play a crucial role in maintaining the water and electrolyte balance in the body. These include, in particular, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate and hydrogen carbonate. These so-called ions are essential for various physiological functions and play a key role in stimulus conduction, water balance and osmoregulation in the cells.

The electrolyte balance is of crucial importance for the function of cells, especially nerve and muscle cells. Electrolytes enable the transmission of electrical impulses, which are essential for muscle contraction, nerve conduction and other important biological processes such as the regulation of blood pressure, the support of nerve impulses and muscle contraction.

The Formula Diet is a special nutritional strategy that aims to replace meals with predefined, balanced and calorie-controlled products. These products, known as Formula products, can be in the form of shakes, bowls or soups and contain a precise blend of nutrients, including proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals.

The main purpose is often to lose weight with formula diets. By replacing conventional meals with formula products, a controlled calorie intake is made possible, which leads to a calorie-reduced state and can therefore promote weight loss. This approach provides an easy way to monitor daily calorie intake while still ensuring an adequate supply of essential nutrients.

The term "isotonic" refers to a solution or drink that has a similar concentration of dissolved particles (electrolytes and carbohydrates) to that of human blood. This means that the osmolarity of the liquid has the same tonicity (= pressure, tension) as blood. This accelerates the passage through the stomach during the drinking process and the liquid is absorbed more quickly in the intestine. Particularly in the context of nutrition and sport , "isotonic" refers to drinks that contain a balanced amount of electrolytes and sugar to ensure optimum fluid intake and energy supply during physical activity. Furthermore, increased mineral losses due to increased sweating can be optimally compensated.

Calorie (unit symbol cal) is used to measure energy, in particular the amount of heat required to heat 1g of water by 1°C at normal pressure. Calories are used to quantify the physiological calorific value of food. This indicates the energy gain from the supplied, metabolized food within the body. The term is therefore of importance when it comes to the human energy balance. The basal metabolic rate (resting energy expenditure) is the amount of energy required to maintain normal bodily functions. The level of the basal metabolic rate depends on factors such as age, gender, body surface area/mass, hormone status, climate and altitude. Any physical activity such as sport, workouts, work, etc. beyond the resting state increases an organism's energy or calorie requirements. Calorie consumption is therefore related to the amount of energy used by the body through activities and metabolic processes. A balanced relationship between calorie intake and consumption is important for maintaining a healthy weight.

"Low calorie" refers to foods or meals that provide comparatively little energy. A food may only be described as "low in calories" if it has a maximum of 40kcal per 100g or, in the case of liquid foods, no more than 20kcal per 100mL. A low-calorie diet can be a strategy to control calorie consumption and thus reduce weight if necessary. It is important to understand your calorie needs to ensure a balanced diet and achieve a healthy energy balance.

Lactose is a natural sugar source in milk and dairy products. This disaccharide consists of the combination of the two simple sugars glucose and galactose. Lactose is responsible for the energy supply in the milk of mammals, including humans (especially in infants).

Lactose intolerance refers to the body's inability to break down lactose efficiently, which can lead to digestive discomfort such as bloating, abdominal pain and diarrhea. This condition occurs when the enzyme lactase, which is normally responsible for breaking down lactose in the intestine, is only produced in small amounts. Lactose-free products are specially developed foods in which the lactose has been removed or pre-digested by the use of lactase. These products offer people with lactose intolerance an alternative, as they allow them to enjoy milk and dairy products without causing the typical symptoms. As glucose and galactose have a stronger sweetening power than lactose itself, lactose-free products in which the lactose has been pre-digested into the two plain sugars also taste sweeter. The term "lactose-free" may only be printed on food if a content of 0.1g per 100g or mL is not exceeded. On the other hand, products may be labeled as "low in lactose" if a maximum of 1g of lactose per 100g or mL is present.

Nutrients are essential components of food that the body needs in order to grow, develop and function optimally. They can be divided into two main categories: Micronutrients and Macronutrients.

Micronutrients are nutrients that the body needs in smaller quantities. These include vitamins, minerals and trace elements. These play crucial roles in various biological processes and are essential for maintaining health.

Macronutrients are nutrients that are required in larger quantities. These include proteins, carbohydrates and fats, which provide the energy required for basic bodily functions and physical activity.

Essential nutrients are those that the body cannot produce itself and must therefore be obtained from the diet. These include certain vitamins, minerals, amino acids and fatty acids that are necessary for vital functions.

The daily ration refers to the total amount of food and drink a person consumes in a day. This includes all components of the diet, including macro and micronutrients, to cover the individual's daily energy and nutrient requirements.

On the other hand, a "daily ration for weight-control nutrition" is a legally strictly defined foodstuff that must meet specific compositional requirements and is intended to completely replace the daily food ration as part of a low-calorie diet for weight reduction.

A vegan diet is a diet that is based exclusively on plant sources and avoids all animal products. This excludes not only meat, but also dairy products, eggs and other animal products, such as honey. The decision to adopt a vegan lifestyle can be based on ethical, health or environmental considerations. People who follow a vegan diet are often committed to protecting animals, pursuing health goals and helping to reduce their ecological footprint. However, a balanced vegan diet requires careful planning in order to provide the body with all the necessary nutrients.

The official definition for the assessment of vegan food in Germany is as follows: Vegan food are nutrients that are not products of animal origin and in which no ingredients (including additives, carriers, flavourings and enzymes) or processing aids or non-food additives used in the same way and for the same purpose as processing aids that are of animal origin have been added or used in processed or unprocessed form at any stage of production or processing. A vegan claim is not precluded by unintentional inputs of products of animal origin if these are technically unavoidable despite appropriate precautions in compliance with good manufacturing practice.